Abjection And Marginalization Of Females: A Critical Review Of Leila’s Character In Elif Shafak’s Novel 10 Minutes 38 Seconds In This Strange World


  • Dr Muntazar Mehdi Assistant Professor in the Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Ms Uzma Moen Lecturer in the Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.
  • Ms. Shanza Abbasi Research Scholar in the Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan.




Psychological Violence, Abjection, Marginalization, Discrimination, Disparaged


In this article, the researchers emphasize on the abjection faced by the protagonist in the novel “10 Minutes 38 Seconds in this Strange World”. In this novel, Shafak discusses the experiences of a prostitute and how she encounters physical and psychological violence. The writer has particularly discussed the unjust treatment of sex workers in Istanbul. In this misogynistic world, victimization and marginalization of particular classes of society is exceedingly pervasive. This particular class of sex workers encounters huge discrimination and persistent intolerance. Elif Shafak’s character Leila in ‘10 Minutes 38 Seconds in this Strange World’ represents these classes. She is a prostitute who has been compelled to enter this profession and this research attempts to look into those very reasons. Such characters have to carry the social stigma attached to their profession even in liberal societies such as America and Turkey. The researchers look into the savage and merciless treatment that Leila has to undergo solely due to the fact that she is a prostitute. The most heart-wrenching aspect is that though she entered that profession not by choice, she still has to tolerate constant brutality and injustice not only from society but from her own flesh and blood as well. The current examination expects to explore the abjection and belittling attitude confronted by Leila. The findings of research uncovered the maltreatment and ruthlessness done to a girl who fell victim to unforeseen circumstances and ended up in a glittery brothel, not opting willingly rather being engaged for a sad and discriminatory life.


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How to Cite

Mehdi, M., Moen, U., & Abbasi, S. (2022). Abjection And Marginalization Of Females: A Critical Review Of Leila’s Character In Elif Shafak’s Novel 10 Minutes 38 Seconds In This Strange World. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 22(1), 67–82. https://doi.org/10.46568/pjgs.v22i1.591