Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS <p><a href="http://socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/administrator/PJGS.png"></a></p> Centre of Excellence for Women’s Studies, University of Karachi en-US Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 2072-0394 Women And Media: An Ethical Analysis https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/137 <p>Media is the collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information or data. Media means technology that is intended to reach a mass audience. Ethics is the branch of knowledge that tests with moral principles. Ethics is a system of the ethics is concerned with what is good for individuals and society and is also described as moral philosophy. Media ethics are a complex topic because they deal with an institution that must do things that generally people in ordinary circumstances would not do, those communication ethics focuses on moral characters, social values related to the women protection the significant segment of the society. Women play on important role in reforming the society. The media has a critical role to play in shaping people’s opinion and perceptions through the way it reports the news of women issues. There are some important ethical considerations which the media should take into account before reporting on women’s problems. The media also needs to focus on different aspects of the society at large to gradually bring awareness regarding the status of women and change orthodox mindsets which are based against women. This article discusses ethical consideration of media regarding women issues.</p> Abida Perveen Muhammad Shazad Copyright (c) 2017 Dr Abida Perveen, Dr Muhammad Shazad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 1 15 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.137 Determinants of Girl’s School Enrollment In Pakistan https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/138 <p>The developing countries like Pakistan are facing the problem of low girls’ school enrolment rate. The study estimates the determinants of girls’ school enrolment by employing Binary Probit modal using the PSLM data 2010/11.The results show that though the education of both mother and father affect positively the girls’ school enrolment, yet the former affects it more as compared to the latter. The relationship between age of children and school enrolment is of inverted ‘U’ shaped. Foreign remittances and land ownership have more chances to affect the female school enrolment. School distance and poverty are major problems for female school enrolment. Further, females have more chances of school enrolment in urban areas as compared to rural ones. The results at provincial level reveal that mother’s education has more chances to affect the probability of girls’ enrolment in Sindh followed by Punjab as compared to KPK and Baluchistan. At a policy level government should pay more attention on girls’ school enrolment who are to become mothers tomorrow. The government should provide schools as near as possible to their homes. Free education should be provided especially for the poor. The ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development should be made more effective in searching out jobs abroad.</p> Ahmed Raza Cheema Mazhar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2017 Dr Ahmed Raza Cheema , Mazhar Iqbal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 17 35 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.138 The Role Of Ideological State Apparatuses In Identity Formation In Qaisra Shahraz’s: The Holy Woman https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/139 <p>This research aims to critically analyze the role of Ideological State Apparatuses, defined by Louis Althusser, in identity formation of Zari Bano, the protagonist in the novel “The Holy Woman” written by Qaisra Shahraz. According to Althusser, ideology functions through ISAs which change individuals to ideological subjects within capitalist society. This study focuses on the influences of the cultural ISA, the political ISA and the family ISA on the character of Zari Bano. The study also analyzes the moments of ‘interpellation’ by critically evaluating the text of the novel and reveals how the characters act in certain ways and blindly accept certain beliefs and ideologies. The findings of the research indicate that the ISAs play a crucial role in formation of individuals’ identities and the socio-cultural / political ideologies set double standards in a patriarchal society, particularly for women, which are difficult to challenge. The research is significant as it deals with the issue of passive discursive ideologies at work in setting up different norms and values in a patriarchal society and how these are given the status of natural laws of life to be followed blindly by the social subjects. This research study is limited to the analysis of interpellation and ISAs only on Zari Bano and the characters closely related to her within the first part of the novel. The study is replicable and may draw attention of the scholars to investigate the role of ISAs other than those in this paper and explain action and reactions of the characters involved.</p> Amna Saeed Azher Khan Copyright (c) 2017 Dr Amna Saeed , Azher khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 37 52 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.139 Women In The Folk Literature Of Sindh: Re-Examining The Poetry Of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/140 <p>This article is an attempt to examine the significance of folk literature which embodies the history, tradition and culture; implies a socio-cultural corpus specific to a particular ethnic group, and includes folk-behavior or the study of the specific customs and beliefs of a given social group and folk life or the study of folk-traditions. The folk literature of Sindh, like all other folk literature is the result of an interaction of cultural, geographical and religious factors that offers valuable historical evidence of cultural influence. Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai (1689- 1752 CE) is a celebrated Sufi poet, philosopher and social reformist, who employed folklore as a major segment in his poetry. The collection of Bhitai’s poetry which mostly comprised of the folklore is titled <em>Shah Jo Risalo</em>. This paper deals with a socio-cultural analysis of the folklore as a source for providing an image of the woman in the society. The Sindhi folklore also depicts an interesting picture of the prevailing customs and traditions. This article deals with a critical approach in order to reveal some historical truth in this regard.</p> Bashir Ahmed Humera Naz Copyright (c) 2017 Bashir Ahmed , Dr Humera Naz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 53 64 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.140 Feminist Research Methodologies: An Analysis Of Graduate Level Dissertations At CEWS https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/141 <p>The study is about learning of feminist research and its application at academic level. The aim of this study is to analyze attitudes of feminist students towards feminist research in order to conduct research in feminist perspective and select topics, methodologies, sample as well as data collection tools and analysis. A sample of 50 M.A. dissertations of different topics of the year 2013-2014 has been selected from the Centre of Excellence for Women’s Studies University of Karachi. Selected topics of sample thesis are based on women’s issues and general social issues. The analytical approach is used with quantitative research methods. Purposive and convenience sampling methods of non-probability sampling are applied. The study observed that students attempted to research and analyze the selected topics from a feminist perspective. Results show that majority of the students apply mix methodology in their researches. They usually select common issues of women for research. There is a need to raise more themes about women and gender issues to bring social change.</p> Dua -e- Rehma Seema Manzoor Nasreen Aslam Shah Copyright (c) 2017 Dua-e-Rehma, Seema Manzoor , Dr Nasreen Aslam Shah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 65 80 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.141 Construction Of Female Identity In Pakistani Television Commercials (November, 2015-April, 2016): A Semiotic Analysis https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/142 <p>This study explores how TV commercials in Pakistan construct female identity in the present era. Advertising becomes an essential part in moulding and shaping our behaviour, attitude, values towards lifestyle and advertisers use visual, semiotic and printed text aims to convey their specific messages. This work attempts to analyze how the belief system of "flawless" and "perfect" society is created and constructed in and through advertisements. This study employed semiotic analysis as a research method to examine Pakistani TVCs. With stratified sampling technique, ten TVCs selected that appeared during intervals breaks of famous TV serials ,obtained from main three private Pakistani channels, on a week after week premise for a time of six months. TVCs were analyzed with reference to the representation of Pakistani women in selected time period. As sign frameworks are included in the construction of meaning and advertising utilizes these signs to transmit its message. The ideologically developed messages, TVCs not only depict the image of women but have additionally made that image into the affirmed part of the female identity in the society. The overall findings reveal that women identity thrive in TV commercials that repeatedly represent women as glamorized sex object, there by not reflecting the different and progressive roles of women. This study is an effort to examine the advertising practice in Pakistan that how it constructs and depicts Pakistani women. Most commercials reveal today’s Pakistani women as an independent glamorous and liberal object. This study would be significant for communication experts as well as for the policy makers who can apply it as a basis for creating and executing advertisements in future.</p> Moneeba Iftikhar Mehwish Islam Copyright (c) 2017 Moneeba Iftikhar , Mehwish Islam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 81 110 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.142 Relationship Between Patriarchy And Customary Social Practices Affecting Women’s Life In Pakistan https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/143 <p>Explaining the nature and prevalence of patriarchal culture and eight anti women socio-cultural practices (i.e. Dowry, Watta Satta, Walwar, Honour Killing, Wanni, Swara, Marriage with the holy book of Quran, and Child marriage), this paper explores a relationship between people’s perceptions about patriarchy and anti women socio-cultural practices as sources of crime and violence against Pakistani women. The paper is based on primary data collected through survey conducted with a close ended questionnaire developed by the researcher. The collected data was statistically analyzed to test hypotheses. It argues that socio-cultural practices and the patriarchy are perceived as factors leading to crime and violence against Pakistani women. It is found that the respondents scoring higher on the scale for assessing perceptions regarding “patriarchy as a factor leading to crime against women” also score higher on the scale for assessing the “socio-cultural practices as factor leading to crime against women” in Pakistan. Therefore, it is inferred that there is a positive correlation between respondents’ perceptions regarding patriarchy and socio-cultural practices as factors leading to crime against women in the country. It means patriarchy is the basic system that fosters crime and violence against women through the tools of anti women socio-cultural practices in Pakistan.</p> Naima Tabassum Huma Tabassum Tabassum Afzal Copyright (c) 2017 Dr Naima Tabassum , Huma Tabassum, Tabassum Afzal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 111 128 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.143 Linguistic Representation Of Sports Women In Pakistani English Newspapers https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/144 <p>Women are integral to social progress and development. They participate in all walks of life and contribute their fair share for the overall good. Globally, they have been contributing in sports and have brought a positive change in the outlook of societies in favour of gender balance. Conversely, primitive and less developed societies restrict women to domestic sphere and discourage them to participate in public life. They also view sports as masculine domain and frown upon the participation of women in any sports. In Pakistan, the situation is no less different and with a predominantly patriarchal social structure, the country does not cater to the needs of female players in provision of facilities and infrastructure. Despite the growing number of renowned female players, the attitude of the people in general and the government in particular is biased and discriminatory. This study intends to qualitatively analyze newspaper reports through the application of linguistic tools. The reports are purposively selected from published Pakistani English newspapers about women sports available online. The findings reveal that women are underrepresented and narrowly described for their achievements. The study further reveals that they are faced with the challenge to overcome conservative cultural narrative that discourages female sports.</p> Qaisar Khan Maria B. Shahid Sohni Ihsan Copyright (c) 2017 Qaisar Khan , Maria B. Shahid , Sohni Ihsan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 129 144 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.144 Gender Differences In Resilience, Coping And Quality Of Life Of Oncology Nurses In Pakistan https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/146 <p>This research was carried out to explore the gender differences in resilience, coping and quality of life of oncology nurses. It is evidenced through the literature that oncology nurses face different stressors because of complexity involved in their profession. This research attempts to investigate the impact of resilience and coping strategies on quality of life of nurses along with identifying nature of gender differences in each domain. A total of 300 oncology nurses (150 males and 150 females) participated in cross sectional survey based study. Trait and State Resilience Checklist, Brief Cope Scale and WHO Quality of Life scale were used to assess resilience, coping strategies and quality of life respectively. Results indicated significant gender differences in terms of coping strategies and quality of life. Moreover, resilience came out to be a strong predictor of quality of life in nurses. Findings of the study are discussed in terms of policy towards nursing stress management and coping intervention.</p> Sajida Naz Naima Saeed Aazadi Fateh Muhammad Copyright (c) 2017 Dr Sajida Naz , Dr Naima Saeed , Dr Aazadi Fateh Muhammad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 145 159 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.146 Socio-Economic Impact And Status Of The Islamic Perspective Of Veil https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/147 <p>The Persian language word ‘Purdah’ and in Arabic ‘Hajab’ used for veil. Veil used by women for being segregation, protection and escaped from men. In one way or the other veil not invented by Muslims. It continuously used in ancient as well as modern civilizations by women. Developed nations have blamed the use of veil an obstacle in the process of development. Therefore, modern nations have struggled to get rid of the use of veil. They argue that it is a sign of slavery for women and it is an obstacle in the path of development. The modern secular or liberal educated Muslims considered veil as the biggest obstacle for social and economic development. It makes a woman helpless, as being zanjir (chain) in her feet. It has become an obstacle in the process of development for women. It is consider as a tool for segregation among men and women. The so-called Muslims of the modern era are trying to introduce changes in religion by imitation the modern nations of the world. In particular, ways for Muslim woman use of veil in Islam is must. It is a right provided her by religion. It provides her strength. Veil is a sort of obstacle that the splitting of Muslim space between men and women, and has gone auxiliary in creating the gap both in public and in private today. Muslim females deem that veiling is a constraint of modesty and a mark of duty to God; other women squabble that the veil is pinpointing of defense from the patriarchal prioritization of women’s corporeal and sexual pleasant appearance. In the Holy Quran word, ‘Hajab’ is use 7 times. Women adopt Islam is against domination and forceful practice of veil, as a part of teaching of Islam as a protection. This article aims at: (1) historical background of veil and its existence in civilizations, (2) Socio-Economic impact of it on women, (3) Meaning and interpretation of veil in Islamic context, followed by concerted bibliography.</p> Shagufta Jahangir Asma Manzoor Imran ul Haq Kalyanvi Copyright (c) 2017 Shagufta Jahangir , Dr Asma Manzoor, Dr Imran ul Haq Kalyanvi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 161 179 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.147 Women’s Role In Informal Sector In Hyderabad https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/148 <p>The aim of the study is to find out how much women are contributing in the household’s budget in slum areas of Hyderabad district. A sample comprised of 200 women workers. They were randomly selected in four slum areas in Hyderabad district including: Parytabad, Ghera coloni (Latifabaf unit 9), Haliroad and Qasmabad. A close ended questionnaire technique was used and data was analyzed through SPSS (version 18). The findings show that about 48% of single status women have more than an average contribution in income generation. It has revealed that women earn less than Rs.5000 per month in the slum areas of Hyderabad. They give extensive time to their work for generating more income. On the basis of results, this study concludes that females were facing multiple problems such as illiteracy, lack of technical skills, less income and less opportunity, etc. These findings are enough for the policy makers and government to formulate policy in informal sector concern to women.</p> Shazia Shahab Sheikh Abida Hafeez Abdul Hameed Mallah Copyright (c) 2017 Shazia Shahab Sheikh , Abida Hafeez, Abdul Hameed Mallah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 181 193 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.148 Educated Females Participation In Labor Market: The Role Of Structural Barriers https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/149 <p>Females’ proportion is increasing at higher levels of education in Pakistan but educated female’s employment is not increasing in consonance with their level of education. The main purpose of the present research is to explore the structural barriers of educated females regarding their participation in labor market. A sample of 251 female respondents was selected from University of Gujrat through stratified random sampling technique to conduct survey. A well-structured questionnaire was administered by the researcher to collect data from the respondents. Logistic regression was applied to examine independent effect of variables. To find out significance of various independent variables, dependent variable was cross examined by using chi- square method. Findings of Logistic regression revealed that structural factors were 3.3 times more likely to exhibit favorable attitude towards female employment, whereas respondents with highly supportive family’s normative factors were 2.9 times more likely to have favorable attitude towards female employment. The study suggested that there is still need to do more studies as well as large scale cross sectional house hold national surveys on this topic and there should be a mechanism to develop awareness campaign strategies to create awareness by using different channels including media, NGOs, and some other concerned departments to minimize structural factors and enhance female labor force participation.</p> Sidra Maqsood Fauzia Maqsood Copyright (c) 2017 Sidra Maqsood, prof. Dr Fauzia Maqsood https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 14 1 195 206 10.46568/pjgs.v14i1.149