Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></p> Centre of Excellence for Women’s Studies, University of Karachi en-US Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 2072-0394 Feminine Hygiene Products Disposal and its Implications for Climate Change <p>The disposal of feminine hygiene products (FHPs) is a serious global concern, with particular urgency in developing countries, notably Pakistan. Municipal corporations face a serious challenge due to FHPs being part of unsorted domestic waste. Also, it is compounded by the absence of or poor implementation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) policies. This research aims to investigate the prevailing practices of FHP disposal among women and their awareness of its environmental implication(s) in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), and Pakistan. Qualitative research methodology was employed; a sample of ten educated working women was purposively selected for in-depth interviews. The conceptual framework of 'period poverty' was applied to analyze the experiential knowledge of women. The study concluded that women had a variety of disposal practices influenced by their religious and socio-cultural circumstances. However, environmental concern was given the least importance due to certain limitations. FHP users, as well as concerned authorities, need to collaborate to prevent land pollution and the resulting emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) contributing to climate change.</p> Aisha Alam Copyright (c) 2024 Aish Alam 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 1 17 Available Pro-Women Laws in Sindh-Pakistan; Period of Enactment Explored Between 2010 to 2022 <p>After the democratic process reinstatement in Pakistan, since 2008, many pro-women laws have been enacted by National and Provincial Assemblies, and among all, the Sindh Assembly has proven more enlightened in this context. These laws were meant to improve women and girls' conditions in Pakistan but the indicators of women's progress showed not much improvement, particularly for rural women/girls Pakistan persisted in bottom countries in Gender Gap Index even some surveys claimed Pakistan is least protected for its women population. In this situation, these law's execution and challenges in the implementation of these laws are significant subjects to explore so the evidence could be generated to bring improvement in this process. This study is a step to explore and provide updated information on services for women's rights. It examined laws enacted from 2010 to 2022, their implications, and the structures in place for women's protection. The findings reveal that around fifteen laws directly protect girls and women. However, some structures, like rules of business and district-level committees, are not fully operational despite being notified. This hinders the implementation of laws to protect girls due to the absence of rules or lack of interest from relevant departments.</p> Bilquis Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 Bilquis Rehman 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 18 37 Role of Parenting Practices to Construct Gender Roles Attitude among Children: A Cross-Sectional Study <p>Parenting is a strong institution of socialization and parents have an essential role in transmitting gender roles and attitudes among children. Therefore, the present research aimed to explore gender differences in parenting practices among parents and their effect on children's gender roles attitudes. The positivist approach was followed in the present study and a cross-sectional design was applied to conduct surveys. The sample comprised both parents (n=250 mothers, n=250 fathers) and children (n=250 girls, n=250 boys) from families of Lahore, the most populous city and district of Punjab, Pakistan through a multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and Gender Roles Attitude Scale were used with the prior permission of the authors to collect data. The statistical techniques MANOVA, ANOVA, and frequencies/ percentages were applied to analyze data. The findings revealed that mothers used 'involvement', and 'positive parenting' to socialize children as compared to fathers. Therefore, parents can influence their children's gender development through involvement and positive parenting to construct egalitarian gender roles attitudes, and behaviors among sons and daughters.</p> Farah Adil Dr. Raana Malik Copyright (c) 2024 Farah Adil, Dr. Raana Malik 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 38 52 A Comparative Study of English and Urdu Single National Curriculum Textbooks of Primary Level: A Feminist Perspective <p>The paper aims to explore the depiction of gender and their roles in textbooks of Oxford University Press in Pakistan. The objectives are to explore the gender roles and representation of male and female characters within the English and Urdu textbooks of the Single National Curriculum in Pakistan. A descriptive-qualitative approach is used and data collected is analyzed thematically. Beauvoir's feminist theory is employed for the analysis of the textbooks. The research reveals that the feminist agenda of equity has been fulfilled in that women should be given an equal place in society, where women are portrayed as strong, engaged individuals who wish to play a part in changing society. Besides, this study supports the notion that children ought to be allowed to follow their passions and abilities without hindrance from gender-based societal norms. Since children of both sexes should be treated equally, the feminist perspective's comparative analysis of the two textbooks will help the authors carefully design the course curriculum.</p> Hadiqa Malik Tasmia Khanum Fizza Malik Copyright (c) 2024 Hadiqa Malik, Tasmia Khanum, Fizza Malik 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 53 72 Impact of Widowhood on the Status of Elderly Women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p>In Pakistan, the demographic transition that started in the 1990s has caused an increase in the population of elderly people including aged widows. Demographic transitions, as well as socio-cultural changes, have adversely affected the social status of elderly widows in Pakistani society. The objective of this research study is to investigate the impact of widowhood on the social status of elderly women in District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This research study collected data from elderly widows in District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Respondents were identified from a list of elderly widows collected from the office of Pakistan Baitul Mal. Data was collected from the respondents through in-depth interviews. The findings of the research show that the social status of elderly widows has declined in Pakistani society. Elderly widows are faced with poverty as well as health discrimination. There is minimum or no involvement of elderly widows in decision-making. They are usually deprived of their share in property inheritance. Award of share in the property, the introduction of compulsory old age pension, Governmental financial relief, and the creation and participation of elderly widows in income-generating activities may positively impact their status.</p> <p><em> </em></p> Hamid Alam Sameer Ul Khaliq Jan Akhtar Muneer Copyright (c) 2024 Hamid Alam, Sameer Ul Khaliq Jan , Akhtar Muneer 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 73 85 Communal Trauma and Colonial Orthodoxy: Attachment Relationships as Colonies in Baldwin’s What the Body Remembers <p>Women are merely treated and considered as colonies and territories within the backdrop of any communal violence, domestic disruptions in particular, and partition or war in general. Shuana Singh Baldwin's novel <em>What the Body Remembers</em> brings into the limelight the forgotten and hushed voices of both women and intimate female partners who are subjected to gender discrimination, exposed to sexual assault and female objectification on the pretext of attachment bonds. Moreover, this study espouses the idea that even though the colonists are far gone, neo-colonists in the form of patriarchs propagate the orthodox colonial mentality, and their primary victims are women and attachment relationships. The purpose of this essay is to address certain questions: what is communal trauma, in what manner the colonist mentality has affected the feminine section, and how this colonial mentality has disrupted the communal, social, and filial spheres of life in the postcolonial age. The focal point of this study is to explore and examine the colonial mentality, gender discrimination, and issues faced by women in attachment relationships in the subcontinental communities, and how these issues result in communal trauma and repression of women, thereby rendering women as colonies.</p> Hamza Rauf Awan Copyright (c) 2024 Hamza Rauf Awan 2024-03-18 2024-03-18 24 1 86 100 The Impact Assessment of Female Entrepreneurship on Household Income: An Empirical Analysis Based on Heckman Selection Model for Pakistan <p>Household enterprises provide employment opportunities, especially for females that not only enhance their entrepreneurial abilities but also generate substantial income. This income generation brings forth strength, confidence self-reliance, and empowerment that have a trickle-down effect on the economy. Household enterprises referred to as micro and small enterprises have played a significant role in socioeconomic development especially in removing financial constraints, improving self-confidence, and growing and realizing their potential through empowerment. The majority of female household enterprises found in the informal sector are the major source of income for poor households. Dual household responsibility time constraints and social-cultural norms hinder females from entering the labour force therefore household enterprises provide opportunities and well-being to the family. This research paper aims to analyze the impact of female entrepreneurship on household income. For this purpose of estimation used Pakistan Social Living Measurement Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey data by the technique of Heckman-Selection Model throughout 2018-2019. The results show that female-owned enterprises play a pivotal role in socioeconomic development and are a major source of employment and income for poor households.</p> Humera Sultana Copyright (c) 2024 Humera Sultana Sultana 2024-03-18 2024-03-18 24 1 101 122 Weapon of the Weak: Women’s Activism and Technology in The City Always Wins <p>In recent years, women's activism in Asia has received greater attention in literary production. The active involvement of women in instigating, propelling, and sustaining revolutionary activism has assumed a significant status to warrant in-depth analysis from a female gender perspective. This article examines <em>The City Always Wins</em> by Omar Robert Hamilton as an innovative novel depicting the role of women in urban uprisings, particularly during the Arab uprisings of 2011. Drawing on James Scott's (1985) construct of the "weapon of the weak," it explores how technology, specifically smartphones, became central to the activism of female characters in the novel. The analysis involves a close textual reading of the novel, considering the fragmented narration of the novel and the representation of social media as a tool for organizing protests. The article looks at how Mariam's character is used to represent women's activism, highlighting the innovative ways she utilizes technology to oppose more potent oppressive forces. Examining how propaganda and fake news play out in the book against the struggles of the main characters, this article shows how power dynamics shift when even the most vulnerable people have access to powerful technologies.</p> Imdad Ullah Khan Saad Salman Qamar ul Zia Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Imdad Ullah Khan, Mr. Saad Salman, Mr. Qamar ul Zia 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 123 137 Gender Discrimination in Pakistani Society and its Impact on Youth and Women <p>Pakistanis know that masculine attitudes inhibit emotions based on masculinity. Nationwide, women face work, education, and movement impediments. The patriarchal system limits women's autonomy, and sons' preference often hurts daughters financially and academically. The study aims to show youth and women’s different forms of discrimination. It also investigates how social norms and cultural practices perpetuate gender inequity. Furthermore, the study examines how inequality affects women's status. The study uses interpretive, inductive qualitative research, and collected secondary data. Content analysis was used for data analysis, which guided the analysis of gender inequality themes and trends in Pakistani society. Pakistani gender discrimination affects both men and women, according to a study. Cultural norms, economic inequality, and biased practices hinder women's autonomy and education and employment opportunities. The impact on women's position is enormous, emphasizing the need for awareness, collaboration, and government action to reduce discrimination and empower women. The study examined gender imbalance in Pakistan, highlighting cultural context and offering solutions.</p> Najma Gopang Copyright (c) 2024 najma gopang 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 138 157 Thematic Analysis of the Challenges and Struggles Faced by Women with Disabilities in Pakistan <p>The study analyzed the life circumstances of Pakistani women with disabilities (WWDs) in urban and rural areas using focus groups, interviews, and participant observation. The majority had mobility problems, with the remainder being deaf or visually impaired. The average age was 40, and 62% were single. 23% of participants graduated from school after 14 years, while 51% had jobs and earned money. Women with disabilities face physical and psychological barriers, including poverty, difficulty getting married, and limited opportunities for education and social connections. To improve their lives, participants suggested building knowledge, empowering themselves, raising public awareness, changing the built environment, and identifying allies. The study highlights the need for access to communities, education, and equitable opportunities for women worldwide, leading to self-sufficiency, improved health, and economic well-being. The bravery of Pakistani women with disabilities is a great example of the existence of this report.</p> Nasir Sulman Shaista Naz Moazzam Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Moazzam Ali Khan, Nasir Sulman, Shaista Naz 2024-03-23 2024-03-23 24 1 158 176 Women's Work-life Balance Experiences, Challenges & Coping Strategies During COVID-19 within the Pakistani Context <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the Pakistani economy worldwide. This research was purposed to explore experiences, challenging factors, and coping strategies of female employees' work-life balance during a pandemic. For this research qualitative research design was used. To gather information Interviews were conducted. The semi-structured interview protocol was used for conducting interviews. Four participants were selected through purposive sampling. Participants were selected from the public and private sectors of education sectors and multinational companies. Transcribed interviews were analyzed by thematic analysis. The study findings showed that participants faced social mobility restrictions during a pandemic and those females who got family support faced a lack of children interruption while working. The workload on females increased both in personal and professional life. Moreover, employees had to learn new skills to continue their work from home for example teachers learned different software to deliver lectures. Initially, they faced many issues like technology-related issues, irresponsible behavior of students, and lack of maternal policies. This study would help understand issues faced by female employees to maintain work-life balance so that in the future if the situation is processed or continues then organizations can help their employees by giving them better maternal policies and devise strategies to minimize household burden on the employees.</p> Nayab Javed Asma Seemi Malik Faseha Khalid Copyright (c) 2024 Nayab Javed, Asma Seemi Malik, Faseha Khalid 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 177 194 A Comparative Study on the General Perception of Gender Discrimination and Job Satisfaction among Employees <p>This article delves into the influence of gender discrimination on an individual's work performance and job contentment within the professional setting. It establishes a correlation between these aspects by scrutinizing factors like gender stereotypes, biases, fringe benefits, organizational support and training, opportunities and rewards, workload, participation, and gender orientation. Employing a quantitative methodology, the study gathers data from a survey completed by 400 employees in Karachi, Pakistan, hailing from diverse banks. This analysis includes several techniques, including independent T-test, Excel, correlation, and chi-square analysis. The results of the study are characterized by significant differences in job satisfaction levels between the male and female respondents. An online survey created with Google Forms was used to gather data. Convenience sampling was used by the principal investigator to gather data by creating a link for the questionnaire that was then distributed. This study is exploratory, identifying people's impressions of gender-discriminating elements in addition to their degree of job satisfaction. In addition, Items from Section B of the questionnaire were added together to generate an independent variable of gender discrimination, and similarly items in Section C of the questionnaire were combined to create the dependent variable of job satisfaction, to explore the connection between the two variables.</p> Sheher Bano Ali Rabel Mangi Zareen Atta Copyright (c) 2024 Sheher Bano Ali, Rabel Mangi; Zareen Atta 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 195 215 Exploring the Socio-cultural Barriers to Girls’ Education: A Qualitative Study of Parents’ Perspective of School Dropout of Girls of South Punjab <p>Gender equality is the priority of any nation that makes progress in the social and economic spheres of life. Despite efforts by the government and non-government organizations, Pakistan has been unable to achieve gender equity, and gaps in girls’ education are one of the significant reasons. The current study has aimed to investigate the social and cultural constraints of female higher education in the South of Punjab, Pakistan. The qualitative research has deeply investigated parents’ perspectives on girls’ higher education in the southern Punjab districts of Rajun Pur and Dera Ghazi Khan. Focus group discussions were used to collect data to understand parents’ perspectives on their daughters not pursuing higher education. Thematic analysis was used to obtain the research findings. The study findings revealed certain socio-cultural factors as hurdles in the way of higher education for girls, including early puberty, son preferences, poor economic status of parents, early marriages of girls, non-acceptance of co-education, lack of decision-making by girls, cultural restriction, and a particular mind set on employment of women as primary factors behind girls’ lower enrollment in higher education. The study recommends that states focus on girls’ education through strict legislation and create awareness through communication, particularly with the help of non-government organizations.</p> Sadia Jabeen Sonia Omer Asma Zafar Copyright (c) 2024 Sadia Jabeen, Sonia Omer, Asma Zafar 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 216 233 Imbalances in Power Structure Depicting in Pakistani Dramas: An Interdiscursive Analysis <p> </p> <p>The study peruses Pakistani dramas to acknowledge interdiscursivity through Van Dijk's socio-cognitive model which comes under the umbrella of Critical Discourse Analysis. The study observes that Pakistani society is facing challenges at various levels as shown in Urdu dramas. The study evaluates human violation through interdiscursive practices and the language strategies being operated and drilled through various characters in selected dramas to control the nation's progression by exhibiting their social environment through the lens of Pakistani media. In this qualitative research, Van Dijk's model has been used to analyze data. The study reveals that interdiscursivity delves into the underlying agenda to inculcate certain ideologies and discursive practices. The study also exposes that challenges related to the imbalance in power structures faced by Pakistani society are shaped through Pakistani Urdu dramas which block the overall social, political, educational, and economic development of the nation. The findings conclude that language is used as a tool by Pakistani media to achieve hidden agendas instead of bringing change in the society which can lead to a developed nation. The study helps us to understand interdiscursivity and how it develops discourse in a variety of societal contexts that inhibit progress.</p> Salma Naeem Saba Zaidi Copyright (c) 2024 Salma Naeem , Saba Zaidi 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 234 252 A Building Brighter Tomorrows: Unleashing the Power of Maternal Education to Transform Children's Socio-Psychological Development in Malakand Division, Pakistan <p>This research investigates the pivotal role of educated mothers in the socio-psychological development of children in Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Emphasizing the multifaceted impact of maternal education on decision-making, family well-being, and children's needs, the study addresses a specific gap in understanding within this unique context. The study employed a cross-sectional research design, selecting 700 participants across seven districts with the help of a stratified random sampling technique. The research utilizes both descriptive and inferential statistics with the assistance of SPSS version 20. Findings reveal a significant positive impact of maternal education on children's socio-psychological well-being, with additional exploration of gender dynamics. The study consistently supports a strong association between maternal education and positive child outcomes, reinforced by graphical representations and regression analyses. The comprehensive insights contribute to understanding the intricate connections between maternal education and children's development. Policy implications advocate for investment in women's education, awareness programs, and support systems for educated mothers. The integration of gender-balanced socialization principles into early childhood education curricula is recommended for long-term societal equity, aiming to empower women and foster positive outcomes for mothers and children in Malakand Division.</p> Umar Daraz Zakir Hussain Jahan Ul Mulk Copyright (c) 2024 Umar Daraz, Jahan Ul Mulk, Mohammad Ilyas 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 24 1 253 273