Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS <p><a href="http://socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/index" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/administrator/PJGS.png"></a></p> Centre of Excellence for Women’s Studies, University of Karachi en-US Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 2072-0394 Exploring the Concept of Feminism among Young Urban women https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/621 <p>Aurat March is held every year to highlight the issues of women. The present research was conducted to see how much women know about feminism along with Aurat March. A quantitative method with survey design was used for the present research and a semi-structured questionnaire was developed to collect data from 350 young women of Lahore, Pakistan and15 to 24 years age range was selected. Standpoint theory by Dorothy E. Smith was taken as a theoretical framework to study the results. This research mainly covered the concept of feminism, its growth over time, how ‘Aurat March’ had played its role in the development of feminism, and how it was contributing to shaping the identity of young women. Content analysis was used for open-ended questions and one-way ANOVA along with descriptive statistics was used for closed-ended ones. Results showed that education plays no role in the increment of knowledge and in its quality. This study will help in filling the gaps in Pakistani literature and be base of future studies.</p> Aneeqa Razzaq Uzma Ashiq Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Aneeqa Razzaq, Uzma Ashiq Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 22 2 1 24 The Perception, Understanding and Incidence of Pedophilia, The Reasons of its Prevalence, The Problems and the Consequences of this Social Crime in Rural Sindh: A Sociological Analysis https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/646 <p>The objective of the study was to find out and determine the types of child sexual abuse, temptations used by the abusers to seduce the victim, the impact of child sexual abuse on the victims, and the impact of child sexual abuse on the family of the victims. The study was conducted using mixed methods i.e. Qualitative and Quantitative. This was a six months study. The qualitative study was conducted first. Based on the findings of the qualitative study Quantitative study was done through a field survey. For the qualitative study police officials and Casualty Medical Officers (CMO) were interviewed in depth. For quantitative research Parents of victims or the victims themselves with the consent of their parents were interviewed. Qualitative data was analyzed using the Theme, subtheme, and remarks while the quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS (26 versions) and Excel software applications. Most of the children appeared to be innocent and the minor children considered the act vulgar and indecent. The more grown-up ones considered it unethical and were having some guilt. Similar feelings were shared by the parents about the child. Society is very much aware of crime but they are more sensitive to girls than boys. To some extent, they are ignorant too and that is the reason crime is increasing. They became frightened, depressed, lonely, and aloof. The parents became depressed and also suspicious of the social environment. They became secretive in their talk and behavior. Abusers tempted the victims with sex stories, jokes pornographic materials (photos and videos), and by showing their sex organs.</p> Hamida Narijo Aijaz Ali Wasan Copyright (c) 2022 Hamida Narijo, Dr Aijaz Ali Wasan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 22 2 25 46 Women Empowerment and Political Decision-Making: An Appraisal of Appointment of Women Legislators as Decision-Makers in Punjab Assembly from 1947-2018 https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/618 <p>The research paper develops a conceptual relationship between women's empowerment and political decision-making. The goal of empowering women cannot be achieved, without effective participation and representation of women in political activities, the political decision-making process, and structure. Women’s access to resources and opportunities is quite limited compared to men's all over the world. Likewise, in Pakistan socio-cultural environment is not much favorable for women. Punjab is its largest province in terms of population and is considered more progressive regarding gender-related matters; a vast disparity still exists in all sectors. To ensure empowerment, the appointment of women legislators as decision-makers is mandatory. The paper seeks to explore the appointment of women legislators in decision-making positions in the Punjab assembly. The primary objective is to highlight the significance of women’s leadership, particularly in the legislature, which is a key rule-making organ. The paper adopts mix method research design to explore the selected research problem. The case study method is selected by the researcher. The findings show a very low ratio of women’s inclusion in the legislative assembly of the Punjab and their appointment as decision-makers. The study offers rigorous recommendations that would be helpful to make situations, more conducive for women’s inclusiveness in leadership positions.</p> Dr. Hina Rashid Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Hina Rashid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 22 2 47 68 “It’s Karachi, Its, Where Life and Love Come to Die”: Representing Gender, Space and Identity in Karachi You are Killing Me https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/627 <p>This paper demonstrates that Saba Imtiaz’s Karachi <em>You Are Killing Me</em>, re-conceptualizes the relationship between urban spaces and female bodies. The traditional urban theories define space as unchangeable physical reality that profoundly affects its inhabitants. Feminist urban theorists question the traditional gendered perspective on both space and corporeality. Drawing on Elizabeth Grosz (1998) concept on bodies cities, I will investigate how woman as being both spectator and spectacle renegotiates her identity within the patriarchal urban spaces. This research argues that Grosz’s (1998) concept of Bodies-cities is an important intervention in our understanding of spatial politics in postcolonial spaces, as it discusses how female bodies play an important role in the formation of urban corporeality. Her seminal feminist work invents a new insight into the city-body nexus that also helps to address issues such as gender discrimination, inequalities, and urban violence.</p> Khamsa Qasim Copyright (c) 2022 Khamsa Qasim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 22 2 69 88 The Development of Marketing Thoughts in the Light of Islamic Concept of Marketing (Case Study of Female Buying Behaviour towards Islamic Concept of Marketing) https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/641 <p>In this paper, theories of marketing thoughts, historical development, economic development and marketing philosophy have been discussed. Specifically, the role of the female consumer with reference to the buying behaviour in society in the light of the Islamic concept of marketing. The objective of the study is to investigate female buying behaviour in relation to social and religious values, the other objective of the study is to enlighten that the ICM is more effective in comparison to other thoughts of marketing. The objective of the study is to determine and investigate female buying behaviour in relation to social and religious values, it is also and theoretical development of various concepts of marketing developed within the last two hundred years, the other objective of the study is to enlighten that the ICM in more effective in comparison other thoughts of marketing and it is the oldest style and strategically marketing concept. The population in the methodology is used as a general population of the city and the sample is developed on 400 females the method of sampling is used in convenience, random sampling is used just to obtain the results to find out the inclination of the female consumer towards the concept of Islamic marketing.</p> Muhammad Mubashir Qadir Khan Shariq Mubashir Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Mubashir Qadir Khan, Shariq Mubashir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 22 2 89 100 Newspaper Representation of Transgender in Pakistan: A Multi-Modal Analysis https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/631 <p>The aim of the research was to analyze the media visibility of transgenders. The study was conducted via a multi-modal analysis of photographs of trans-genders published in two leading dailies of Pakistan<em>. </em>The analysis was conducted on two levels according to the meta-functions of the visual design as proposed by Kress &amp; van Leeuwen (1996), which are <em>ideational </em>and<em> interpersonal. </em> On the <em>ideational </em>level, five themes emerged which were categorized as images showing confidence, glamour, deprivation, protest, and harassment. The number of images with the themes of confidence and glamour was significantly more in number in comparison to the themes of deprivation, harassment, and protests which were significantly fewer in number although they bear the closest affinity to the everyday lives of the subjects. On the <em>interpersonal</em> level, it is interesting that most of the photographs maintained direct eye contact between the subject and the viewer and thus create an interpersonal bond. A major anomaly that was observed referred to the absolute exclusion of female to male transgenders or trans-males, which is another case of symbolic annihilation. </p> Qurat-ul-Ain Malik Aniqa Ali Sumbal Fahad Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Qurat-ul-Ain Malik, Dr. Aniqa Ali, Ms. Sumbal Fahad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 22 2 101 120 Exploring Feministic Dogmas in Pakistani Web Series: A Qualitative Content Analysis on “Churails” https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/630 <p>Highlighting the feministic approach, the study analyzes gender roles along with three major categories i.e., self-realization, women characterization, and misogynistic approach. The study examines first-ever Pakistani web series in order to explore the representation of gender roles through dialogues that is being used to construct an image of socially constructed responsibilities of gender in Pakistani society. By employing liberal feminism as the theoretical framework, the study stresses the idea of individuality and self-realization by providing women equal opportunities in all spheres of life. The concept of self-realization specifically lightens the phenomenon of individuality as it is significant for women to know their value and self-worth in society as an individual. While analyzing the dialogues of web-series, the study conducts qualitative content analysis to interpret the contextual meanings of dialogues which shows that Pakistani web-series represent females as a source of objectification whereas male characters in the series show hate against females. On contrary, the study also discloses that Pakistani web-series are emphasizing the significance of self-realization as many dialogues show that females express their self-worth by raising their voices against crimes and fighting for their own rights</p> Sarosh Ehsaan Bajwa Saima Waheed Muazam Ali Khan Copyright (c) 2022 Sarosh Ehsaan Bajwa, Dr. Saima Waheed, Muazam Ali Khan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 22 2 121 138 The Issues and Challenges Faced by Lady Health Workers in Maternal Health Care in Rural Communities: An Evidence from South Punjab https://www.socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/620 <p>The Lady health worker (LHW) programme is one of the important steps that have been taken by Pakistan since 1994 to connect with communities and create awareness among different segments of the population particularly women on their maternal health. This LHW programme has managed to develop a system that connects rural communities, especially women with the first-level care facility in communities with a great focus on maternal health care. The current paper aims to identify the challenges and issues faced by lady health workers while they work in rural communities and emphasise on women’s maternal health rights. The study has also assessed the administrative hurdles at the government level that undermines the performance of LHW while working in rural communities of South Punjab. This research is qualitative in nature. Data has been collected using the method of focus group discussion (FGD). Two FGDs were conducted from each district of South Punjab known as Muzaffargarh and RajunPur. Thematic analysis has been used to analyse the data. The study will be helpful for policymakers, health departments and other government agencies. It may assist them to formulate and plan better maternal health care programmes while focusing on hurdles in its way like the socio-cultural issues and improving the working of existing programmes like LHW in country</p> Sonia Omer Sadia Jabeen Copyright (c) 2022 Sadia Jabeen, Dr. Sonia Omer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-08 2022-09-08 22 2 139 152