A Critical Evaluation Of Female Students’ Inclination Towards Higher Studies: A Case Study In The District Of Loralai Balochistan
Keywords:Inclination, Female Students, Higher Education
The aim of the study was to examine the inclination of female students towards higher studies in the Loralai District, Balochistan. The sample of the study comprised teachers (N=100) and parents (N=80) from the Loralai, District. The participants were selected through purposive sampling technique. On behalf of the female students a questionnaire was designed to elicit data from the sample. The collected data was analyzed through t-test. Consistent indicators for low inclination towards higher education were found to be cultural issues, opposition to co-education, low socio-economic status, size of the family, early marriages, distantly situated educational institutions and low parental educational background. Moreover, lack of parental involvement and their differential attitude towards sending their daughters to co-education institutions for higher studies was inversely correlated with female students’ inclination towards higher studies. The implications for solutions were discussed.
Ainsworth, M. (2005). Socioeconomic Determinants of Fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Summary of the Findings of a World Bank Research Project. Washington D.C.: The World Bank.
Arısoy, N. (2007). Examining 8th Grade Students’ Perception of Learning Environment of Science Classrooms in Relation to Motivational Beliefs and Attitudes. Unpublished Theses in Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey. Attainment in the Netherlands. Sociology of Education, vol.59, pp.237-246.
Azizoglu, N. & Çetin, G. (2009). The Effect of Learning Style on Middle Schools Students’ Motivation and Attitudes towards Science, and the Relationships among These Variables. Kastamonu Education Journal, vol.17:1, pp.171-182.
Baloch, Z. W., Tam, D., Langer, J., Mandel, S., LiVolsi, V. A. & Gupta, P. K. (2000). Ultrasound‐Guided Fine‐Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid: Role of On‐Site Assessment and Multiple Cytologic Preparations. Diagnostic Cytopathology, vol.23:6, pp.425-429.
Benn, D. I., Owen, L. A., Osmaston, H. A., Seltzer, G. O., Porter, S. C. & Mark, B. (2005). Reconstruction of Equilibrium-Line Altitudes for Tropical and Sub-Tropical Glaciers. Quaternary International, vol.138, pp.8-21.
Blake, J. (1985). Number of Siblings and Educational Mobility. American Sociological Review, vol.50, pp.84-94.
Burney N. A. & M. Irfan (1991). Parental Characteristics, Supply of Schools, and Child School- Enrolment in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, vol.30:1, p.21.
Butt, Q. (November 24, 2011). 90% of Girls in Rural Balochistan Remain Unschooled. The Express Tribune. Retrieved from https://tribune.com.pk/story/296680/ provincial-deprivation-%E2%80%9890-of-girls-in-rural-balochistan-remain-unschooled%E2%80%99.
Chaudhry, S. I. (2007). Gender Inequality in Education and Economic Growth: Case Study of Pakistan. Journal of women’s Concerns in International Relations, vol.60:4, p.81-91.
Chrispell, J. H. & River, F. (2001). Engaging Latin Families for Student Success: How Parent Education can reshape Parents Sense of Place in the Education of their Children. Peabody Journal of Education, vol.76:2, pp.119-169.
De Graaf, P., M. (1986). The Impact of Financial and Cultural Resources on Educational Attainment in the Netherlands. Sociology of Education, vol.59, pp.237-246.
Hakim, A. & Aziz, A. (1998). Socio-Cultural, Religious, and Political Aspects of the Status of Women in Pakistan. Journal of Pakistan Development Review, vol.37:4, pp.727-746.
Halai, A., (2003). Planning Impact Research: Issues and Dilemmas. In A. Halai and J. Rarieya (Eds.), Impact: Making a Difference; Proceedings of an International Conference held at AKU-IED, Karachi, Pakistan, 376-379.
Hamid, M., Thron, C. & Fageeri, S. (2020). Status and Trends in University Admissions for Women in Sudan: A graphical data analysis. Social Sciences & Humanities Open, vol.2:1, p.100076.
Hountenvilli, A. J. & Conway, S. (2008). Parental Involvement Strongly Impact Student Achievement. Science Daily. pp. 28. http://aserpakistan.org/document/aser/ Pakistan_Fact_Sheet2016.pdf, http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/ier/currentissue_ pdf/7_Saleha%20Parveen%20Article_BER.pdf.http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002231/223115E.pdf.
Jimenez, E. & Lockheed, M. E. (1989). Enhancing Girls’ Learning through Single-Sex Education: Evidence and a Policy Conundrum. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol.11:2, pp.117-142.
Kafas, P. (2009). Child Neglect. A Review; The Internet Journal of Forensic Science. Kastamonu Education Journal, vol.17:1, pp.171-182.
Khalid, H. S. (1996). Female Teachers' and Girls' Access to Primary Schools in Rural Areas of Pakistan: A Case Study (Doctoral dissertation, Institute of Education, University of London).
Khan, M. (2012). Teachers Learning from Professional Development Program for Primary School Teachers and Translating their New Learning Into Actions in Primary Schools in the Context of Chitral Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, vol.1:2, pp.41-52.
Kirkwood, J. (2007). Igniting the Entrepreneurial Spirit: Is the Role Parents Play Gendered? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, vol.13:1, pp.39-59.
Koran, M. L. & Koran, J. J. (1984). Aptitude- Treatment Interaction Research in Science Education. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, vol.21:8, pp.793-808.
LibGuides: SPSS Tutorials: Paired Samples T Test. (2018). Retrieved from Kent.edu website: https://libguides.library.kent.edu/spss/pairedsamplesttest.
Malik, Z. & Nawaz.A. (2016). Female Education Problems in Pakistan. Journal of Educational Science and Research, vol. 6, Issue 1, 1-4
Mansory, A. (2007), Drop out Study in Basic Education Level of Schools in Afghanistan, Kabul: Swedish Committee for Afghanistan. https://www.pedocs.de/ volltexte/2020/18881/pdf/Mansory_2007_Drop_Out_study_in_Afghan_Schools.pdf.
Maralani, V. (2004). Family Size and Educational Attainment in Indonesia: A Cohort Perspective. https://escholarship.org/content/qt7bw543nm/qt7bw543nm_noSplash _f60751478e8c52681f72707854646eb9.pdf
Mare, R., D. & Maralani, V. (2006). The Intergenerational Effects of Changes in Women’s Educational Attainments. University of California, Los Angeles.
Nabī Baḵẖshu Ḵẖānu Balocu, 1. (2000). Education Based on Islamic Values: Imperative and Implications. Jamshoro: Pakistan Study Centre University of Sindh. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/003784075/Cite.
Nadeem, F., (February 28, 2018). “Illiteracy in Balochistan”. Voice of Balochistan. https://voiceofbalochistan.pk/opinions-and-articles/social-development/illiteracy-in-balochistan/.
Newhouse, N. (1990). Implication of Attitudes and Behavior Research for Environmental Conservation. The Journal of Environmental Education, vol.22:1, pp.26-32.
Osborne, J. (2003). Attitudes Towards Science: A Review of the Literature and its Implications, International Journal of Science Education, vol.25:9, pp.1049-1079.
Parveen, S. (2008). Female Education and National Development: As Viewed By Women Activists and Advocates. 3Bulletin of Education & Research June 2008, vol.30:1, pp.33-41.
Rao, N., S. (1991). Counseling and Guidance. New Delhi, McGrawHillResearch group, World Bank, Washington D.C.
Rehmani, A. (2006). Teacher Education in Pakistan with Particular Reference to Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching. Quality in Education: Teaching and Leadership in Challenging Times, vol.20, pp.495-524.
Saeed, A. (1990). Structural Issues in Women Development in Pakistan, UNICIEF; 12 D East SNC Center, Blue Area, Islamabad, 1990, pp.27-35.
Sawada, Y. & M. Lokshin. (2001). Household Schooling Decisions in Rural Pakistan. Policy School- Enrolment in Pakistan. The Pakistan development Review, vol.30:1, p.21.
Shah, S. A. (December 31, 2014). Female Literacy Hits New Low in Balochistan. http://www.dawn.com/news/1154252.
Starkey, P. & Kleir, A. (2000). Fostering Parental Support for Children’s Mathematical Development: An Intervention with Head start Families Early and Development, vol.11:5 pp.659-680.
UNESCO, (2013). Education Transforms Lives. https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/education-transforms-lives
UNICEF (2001). “Life after Early Marriage”. Child Marriages Must Stop. Web Feature. Working Research Paper 2541. Poverty and Human Resources Development. www.unicef.org/notworthy/earlymarriage/ index.htm1.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 1970 Muhabat Khan, Rubina Masum , Nosheen Kanwal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.