Occupational Safety and Health in Coal Fields of Balochistan, Pakistan


  • Mr. Muhammad Asif University of Balochistan in Quetta,
  • Dr. Muhammad Alam Tareen Department of Sociology at the University of Balochistan in Quetta.
  • Mr. Muhammad Zakir Department of Sociology at the University of Balochistan in Quetta.




Coal Mining, Coal Dust, Safety and Health Hazards, Disaster, Vulnerability, Socio-Economic


Coal, the black diamond, is the second and cheapest source of energy all over the world. Despite its economic importance and contribution to eradicating unemployment, mining causes health and safety issues if it is carried out using old and fangled methods. It has resulted in disasters several times. Considering these issues, this study identifies risk factors such as occupational safety and health in coal mining in the Mach and Sor-Range coal fields among Balochistan, Pakistan's six large coal fields. These fields have been producing coal on a massive scale for many decades. Though coal mining is helping out a large number of workers economically, it has caused several types of fatal injuries and even casualties. Among several reasons, unsafe and primitive methods are the main reason for disaster in the mining sector. The workers at coal fields lack all essential health and safety facilities; no type of training is ever conducted for the safety of workers. The untrained workers are transferring the old mining methods to the next generation. The absence of emergency cells, which are highly prone to accidents and diseases due to methane gases, coal mine collapse, and dust, makes the workers inside and the population living near the coal fields vulnerable.

Author Biography

Dr. Muhammad Alam Tareen, Department of Sociology at the University of Balochistan in Quetta.




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How to Cite

Asif, M., Tareen, M. A., & Zakir, M. (2023). Occupational Safety and Health in Coal Fields of Balochistan, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 14(2), 93–106. https://doi.org/10.46568/pjass.v14i2.747