Investigating the Factors of Low Enrolment of Girls at Secondary School Level: A Sociological Analysis


  • Mr. Waheed Akber Khaskheli Social Work Department University of Sindh Jamshoro
  • Jameel Ahmed Qureshi Qureshi Faculty of Education, University of Sindh, Jamshoro
  • Dr. Zareen Atta Memon Memon Social Work, University of Sindh Jamshoro



Low Enrolment, Girls Education, Poverty, Customs and Traditions, Unsafe Environment, Lack of Institutional Support, Secondary Schools


The enrolment of girls in schools poses a significant challenge within underdeveloped nations. Education provision is a fundamental human right that is universally recognized and acknowledged. Each academic year witnesses many female students discontinuing their education at the primary level, thereby failing to complete their secondary education successfully. The primary aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the factors associated with the relatively low enrollment rates of female students at the secondary school level within the Kashmor district, specifically in the Knadhkot area. A research investigation was undertaken within a sample of 15 Government Schools, wherein the active participation of parents and community members was sought through the questionnaire administration. The research study employed a stratified random sampling technique to select participants from parents and community members carefully. Hence, the sample comprises 384 individuals, either parents of dropped-out female school children or community members. The data were obtained by using the questionnaire. The data collected underwent analysis using descriptive and inferential statistics, including mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis. The identified factors, such as poverty (M=3.26), customs and traditions (M=3.26), an unsafe environment (M=3.15), and a lack of institutional support (M=3.39), have been determined to be the primary contributors to the low enrolment of girls at the secondary school level in the study area, the null hypothesis is rejected based on regression analysis results with an R-squared value of 0.549,(F = 144.083, p < 0.001). The average score of each question indicates a high extent of agreement among respondents regarding the impact of the factors. To enhance the enrollment rate of girls, it is recommended that the government increase the stipend amount and provide it monthly rather than quarterly or yearly. A community-level transport system should also ensure girls and their parents feel safe when sending their girls to school after completing 5th grade. A community citizenship organization should also be established to facilitate meetings and discussions regarding girls' enrolment and admission at the local level.

Author Biographies

Jameel Ahmed Qureshi Qureshi, Faculty of Education, University of Sindh, Jamshoro


Ph.D. Scholar, Faculty of Education, University of Sindh, Jamshoro

Dr. Zareen Atta Memon Memon, Social Work, University of Sindh Jamshoro

Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, University of Sindh Jamshoro


Akhter, N., & Akbar, R. A. (2016). Critical Analysis of Life of Pakistani Women: Views of Educated Women. Journal of Elementary Education, 26(1), 111–121.

ASER. (2020). Annual Status of Education Report(ASER).

Asian Development Bank. (2019). SchOOL EDucATION IN PAKISTAN A Sector Assessment School Education in Pakistan (Issue June).

Center of Gender and Policy Studies. (2018). Rural Women in Pakistan Status Report 2018.

Human Rights Watch. (2018). “Shall I Feed My Daughter, or Educate Her?” Barriers to Girls’ Education in Pakistan.

Isran, S. (2012). Status of Women in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis. Journal of Independent Studies and Research-Management, Social Sciences and Economics, 10, 85–99.

Khan, A., & Naqvi, S. (2020). Dilemmas of Representation: Women in Pakistan’S Assemblies. Asian Affairs, 51(2), 286–306.

Pakistan Alliance for Girls Education. (2021). Status of Girls Education in Balochistan Province Overview.

PBS. (2020). Pakistan Social & Living Standards Measurement Survey: PSLM/HIES 2018-19. 35–36.

Qureshi, S. (2004). Pakistan: Education and gender policy Girl’s Education: A lifeline to development. Center for Policy Studies, Central European University.

Reform Support Unit, Education and Literacy Department, G. of S. (2014). Sindh Education Sector Plan 2014-18. In Education and Literacy Department, Government of Sindh (Issue 1).

Sadaf Mustafa, M. Sadiq Ali Khan, K. J. (2016). Women Education in Pakistan: Is the Level Enough for Empowerment. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 7(8), 1747–1753.

Sindh, G. of. (2019). School Education Sector Plan And Roadmap for Sindh (2019-2024). 59.

UNICEF. (2017a). Situation Analysis of Children in Pakistan. Government of Pakistan, 1–200.

UNICEF. (2017b). UNICEF Annual Report 2017 | UNICEF Publications | UNICEF. 1, 90.




How to Cite

Khaskheli, W. A., Qureshi, J. A. Q., & Memon, D. Z. A. M. (2023). Investigating the Factors of Low Enrolment of Girls at Secondary School Level: A Sociological Analysis. Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 14(2), 57–77.